Limitations All studies have limitations in terms of the sample, measurement or manipulation of key variables, and procedure for data collection. Also describe how the results are related to education in general. In addition, by not stating the conclusions or implications of the study, the reader may be left unimpressed, and the author loses the ability to guide the interpretation of the data.
First, researchers should identify the types of malpractices that are most frequent amongst students. Next, summarize other interesting findings from the results section. Particularly in Africa where high quality reading materials are oftentimes scarce, early childhood teachers need to be well trained in teaching strategies that foster oral language.
Explain how the statistical findings relate to that purpose of the study. This occurs when the findings obtained from outside sources are not cited at all or inconsistently referenced. An example paragraph from a Discussion section is given below: The parents then had to sign and return an informed consent document.
Begin the discussion with an opening paragraph summarizing the purpose and main approach of the study: Therefore, the most beneficial recommendations will be ones that educators themselves can implement. Remember, these recommendations must be supported by the statistical findings from the data analysis.
The sample was also relatively homogeneous with mostly Caucasian middle class students who lived in a relatively rural community. Attention should also be paid to the journal requirements, as some journals will require that a certain percentage of the references must be published within the past 5 to 10 years.
Aim to address 2 — 4 weaknesses of the study. First, restate the overall purpose of the study. If there is no statistical result to support the recommendation, then it must be canceled.
However, if the data analysis found that the new teaching program does not improve mathematical exam scores, then the researcher cannot conclude that the new teaching program should be implemented, because the program was found to be ineffective in improving exam scores.
However, learning how to read is a difficult endeavor that requires competent instructors. One way to do this is to take every research question and hypothesis in turn and explain in plain terms what the statistical results mean. Take care to ensure that: While the main findings should be summarized in the discussion, the results including statistics and main figures should be presented only in the results section.
A ceiling effect also most likely influenced performance on the Equivalence task, with most students having nearly perfect scores. Often, authors will present some of the figures in the results and the remaining data in the discussion.
This section should report the limitations that resulted from the research methods. The purpose of this section is to highlight the major statistical findings from the results section and interpret them. Second, researchers should determine what types of factors influence students to engage in examination malpractice.
Also try to integrate the findings into the results of other research studies. What practical steps can educators take to implement the key findings of the research study?
Recommendations Next, give recommendations based on the results of the study.
After the recommendations have been written, reread each recommendation. Instead, simply explain the results in language that is easy for a non-researcher to understand.
Indeed, with the lack of materials often available for early childhood educators in Nigerian classrooms, instruction focused on oral language may be one of the most successful and cost-effective ways of improving early literacy skills. While it is understandable that the flaws in the experimental design and data are not factors that most authors wish to highlight, this section is required by most journals and should be stated.
Suggestions for Further Research Every research study provides one or two answers about education, but also opens the door for five to ten additional questions. Educational researchers need to continue conducting empirical research to ascertain the factors that contribute to cheating amongst students.
However, agreeing to the importance of oral language in literacy development is different from having the expertise to effectively teach oral language skills.
When a discussion is too long, the reader often loses sight of the main message of the study.
Care should be taken that the findings are summarized in the context of the published literature and not simply a reiteration of the results section.
Restating the results By far the most common error made in the discussion is restating the results. Discuss the study limitations and areas of future research:The second to last step in conducting a research study is to interpret the findings in the Discussion section, draw conclusions, and make recommendations.
A paper can only make valid conclusions and recommendations on those variables that the study has empirical data to support. Explaining the meaning of the results to the reader is the purpose of the discussion section of a research paper.
There are elements of the discussion that should be included and other things that should be avoided. Always write the discussion for the reader; remember that the focus should be to help the How to Write an Effective Discussion.
ScienceDocs Editor Dr. Horvath continues her series on writing a research paper: 5 Common Mistakes to Avoid when Writing a Discussion.
Discussion is one of the hardest section in research paper or thesis. It needs experience, learning and practice. It is not a way to restate your results.
In this critical part of the research paper, you start the process of explaining any links and correlations apparent in your data. If you left few interesting leads and open questions in the results section, the discussion is simply a matter of.
Recommendations for further research can be included in either the discussion or conclusion of your paper, but do not repeat your recommendations in the both sections. Think about the overall narrative flow of your paper to .Download