The challenges of evolving and developing

The uptick in plots and attacks in Europe by the Islamic State against targets of opportunity such as a soccer stadium and a music venue underline the need for The challenges of evolving and developing broader deployment of explosives detection systems.

This technology offers a good balance between anomaly detection and privacy. A critical aspect of successful deployment of ETD technology is in the training of the operators in the proper methods to acquire samples for passengers and baggage.

While this is possible to do today, the explosives detection technology community has only just begun to design and implement such concepts and technologies.

While these individual technologies for detection continue to improve and meet the new threats that are emerging, it is a very asymmetric challenge, where propagation of new materials and methods outpaces detection technology evolution.

This particular explosives threat has been widely talked about in the media given its use in the recent bombings in France and Belgium. The X-ray systems used for passenger baggage screening use X-rays that are capable of penetrating the surface of a bag and revealing an image of the contents inside.

The past several years has seen an increase in attacks The challenges of evolving and developing hardened and soft targets in western countries as well as the continued threat against airline-related targets.

A series of airstrikes weakened the capabilities of the so-called Khorasan group after intelligence emerged in that it was plotting attacks on Western aviation by hiding devices in electronics such as cell phones and laptops.

In that incident, the plane was brought down by an electronic device containing a relatively small amount of plasticized explosive known as Semtex H.

Most pure explosives materials do not emit vapor or scent in high enough concentrations to be detected by canines.

The Evolving Challenges for Explosive Detection in the Aviation Sector and Beyond

Innovations in Terrorist Bomb-Making From the first-known terrorist bombing of a civilian aircraft, terrorist groups have continued to innovate their methods in order to perpetrate attacks against civilian aircraft and the aviation sector to achieve their goals.

Until we are successful in changing the paradigm in which cheap terrorism is effective terrorism, we need to be prepared to continue to invest in technologies and processes that make it more difficult for them to succeed.

This is primarily due to the fact that these systems operate by sampling invisible trace amounts of material at unimaginably low levels described in terms like nanograms and picograms and detecting them uniquely by their specific molecular properties.

When you enter security at a major airport in North America, Europe, and other parts of the developed world you now go through a multi-tiered screening process. He currently serves as president of Implant Sciences Corporation, an American company developing explosive detection equipment.

Police initially had failed to find one of the devices at East Midlands Airport in the U. The United States is not immune to such threats. This powerful combination of technologies should catch these explosives threats, even if it were concealed in the electronics of a laptop, because ETD swabs can detect minute amounts of residue.

It has been used widely in the Middle East and in Israel since the mids. They operate in our ambient environment and are readily deployable in robust packages both desktop and hand-held configurations to suit the intended application.

Twenty minutes into the flight, the laptop exploded, blowing a large hole in the fuselage. Wecht and Matthias I.

The second is the opportunity for terrorist groups to recruit airport insiders in both the developed and developing worlds who either are likely to receive less scrutiny from fellow airport staff at security checkpoints than passengers or can evade screening altogether.

This is a recognized gap in some regions of the world where security requirements are either lacking or sub-standard and a passenger or cargo threat can be placed on board an aircraft and then propagated through the aviation system to a high-value target well inside the secure zone.

And TNT concealed in a laptop could be easily missed. X-rays basically identify objects inside a package or bag that have a particular density or mass compared to what is typically expected in a non-threat scenario.

Current systems are, in general, very effective. The behavior, as well-intentioned as it may be to introduce new technology platforms, often has the opposite effect of creating a churn of non-productive activities within the agencies to answer to policymakers and regulators.

Their model scales while ours becomes more difficult to sustain. One of the greatest fallacies in explosives detection is that dogs and standard X-rays detect explosives when, in fact, they simply detect anomalies or objects that are out of place.

The concept is that using a high-energy X-ray source reveals density and simultaneously a lower-energy source is used to provide an indication of whether the object is made from organic or inorganic materials.

Training is Critical There are multiple challenges that are continuously present in the aviation security sector but none more critical than consistent high performance of humans in the security chain.

When used in concert as a layered security system, they represent an even more robust solution to the current and foreseeable future threats. That is what is believed to have happened on the Russian airliner that took off from Sharm el-Sheikh last October and clearly that is what happened to enable the bomber to board the Daallo plane in February.

Several examples over the years have shown that terrorists will try to substitute explosives materials cast into powders or solids that mimic the average densities of the materials that they are replacing in an attempt to defeat X-ray detection.The Evolving Challenges for Explosive Detection in the Aviation Sector and Beyond MayVolume 9, Issue 5.

but the international aviation sector remains vulnerable because many airports in the developing world either have not deployed these technologies or have not provided rigorous training for operators. While capabilities. principles, theories and practices.

The challenges of developing indigenous theories and the obvious consequences of this transfer of management knowledge to Africa are discussed. he paper finally advocates an agenda for developing indigenous African management theories and practices that will help advance the course of development.

EVOLVING CHALLENGES FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT CORPORTATIONS The Causes and Impacts of Failures, Downsizings and Mergers William The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The Challenges of Evolving and Developing Management Indigenous Theories and Practices in Africa.

The Challenges of Evolving and Developing. Evolving and developing African management. 1 — Working Group Outbrief — Challenges in Developing and Acquiring Systems with Evolving Requirements Session 10F Session Chairs. The evolution and development of indigenous management theories and practices in Africa has been seriously affected and retarded by colonialism.

The colonial administration introduced western management theories and practices, considered as the drivers and the panacea for the continent’s socio-politico-economic development.

The challenges of evolving and developing
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